Methods for distorting reality
Methods for distorting reality

How to cheat professionally? There are six basic data adjustments: default, selection, distortion, distortion, inversion, and design.

Deception is the creation of a false model of reality, it can be carried out in various ways and at different stages of the passage of information from the inductor to the recipient. In this case, both the information itself and the consciousness of the recipient can be deliberately distorted.

Of course, the act of deception is an integral phenomenon in which the deceiver, the information channel and the deceived form a single system. However, for the convenience of scientific analysis, it seems to us possible to consider separately each component of this system. This is due to the fact that the methods of manipulating the information flow are fundamentally different from the methods of influencing the person and are carried out according to completely different laws: in the first case, we are dealing with semantics, and in the second, with psychology. This section ends with a description of ways to disguise deception.

Information flow manipulation

There are various ways to manipulate information, as a result of which the opposing party creates a false model of the surrounding reality. There are six main methods of data processing: default, selection, distortion, distortion, inversion, construction.

The first way to deceive is withholding information from its recipient; the second - in the electoral pass to the recipient only beneficial to the inductor of information; the third - in the deliberate protrusion and emphasis of only one, advantageous to the deceiver, aspects of the phenomenon; the fourth - in distortion (this can be an understatement, exaggeration and violation of proportions); in the fifth case, "black" is replaced by "white", and in the sixth case, the inductor itself invents false data that do not exist in reality. Combined methods of deception are also possible - for example, selection with distortion of individual sides of the transmitted information.

How to be an interesting person?
How to be an interesting person?


The silent mouth is not blamed. Somali proverb

As we can see, the first, the simplest, method of deception is to conceal information from its recipient. It should be noted that it becomes a deception only if the recipient already has a wrong idea about some phenomenon or event, and the inductor does not tell him the truth, although according to his social status he should have done it.

Formally, in this case, there is no lie, but the result is the same - misleading another person. Nevertheless, this method of deception has long been considered less arrogant and malicious than outright lies. “He who is silent does not sin,” says a Russian proverb.


Our mind contains both those truths that should be talked about, and those that should be kept silent. A. Rivarol

The second method - "selection" - is already more sophisticated and, as a rule, is specifically aimed at deceiving gullible people. Sometimes it is resorted to due to circumstances. So, letting in the minds of other people one part of the information (true in itself) and not missing another part, you can form in them distorted, false ideas about reality.


Lies can be less deceitful than artfully chosen truths. Rostan

Distortion is a way of presenting information when attention is drawn to one property of an object or phenomenon that is most beneficial for the source of information, and sometimes banal things are skillfully presented as the greatest revelations.

How to weave intrigues correctly
How to weave intrigues correctly


The most dangerous lies are truths that are slightly perverted. Georg Christoph Lichtenberg

Information can be distorted in various ways. The simplest is a quantitative change: "- What fish did you catch yesterday?" - a friend asks the angler. He involuntarily spreads his palms wider.

The close connection between these two methods of deception - exaggeration and understatement - is aptly noted in the dialogue:

- And you always exaggerate in your stories!

- Am I exaggerating? I’m not telling half the truth!


Never cheat on the truth! Change the truth! E. Lei

Another way to trick the enemy is to swap "yes" and "no" - "black" and "white". So, a rich man trying to deceive robbers on the road will deliberately complain about poverty, and a military leader will try to hide his best troops and, conversely, give an outwardly combat-ready appearance to the weak troops.

Back in 1647, Balthazar Gracian wrote: “When to understand the opposite? When the interlocutor is disingenuous. With the other, interpret everything the other way around: their “yes” is “no”, their “no” is “yes”. They say badly, therefore they value it: after all, when a buyer wants to get a thing, he cheapens it. Do not rely on their praise either - in order not to praise the good, they praise the evil. But for whom there are no evil, for that there are no good ones."

“Be on the lookout for those who have a second intent in mind. The sly man likes to instill carelessness in another; by attacking the will and convincing him not to be afraid, he wins. This one conceals his main intent, flaunting the second, but in fact carrying out the first: they shoot at the reckless enemy for sure. But where the intent of one is awake, let the insight of the other not slumber, and when the secret intent retreats back into an ambush, the insight will come forward into reconnaissance. Let caution figure out the habits of deceit and notice how it circles around and around its purpose. In words - one thing, in mind - another, confusing, hits to the point. Look well, where you are inferior to him, and sometimes it is appropriate to show that you understand him well”.

Manipulation of consciousness (programming of actions)

How to overcome laziness and start acting?
How to overcome laziness and start acting?

The limit of cunning is the ability to manage without using force. L. Vovenargue

By the term "programming" as a form of deception, I mean the creation of such conditions in which the response of another person is uniquely determined by the actions of the deceiver. In its purest form, this can be observed in chess, when a chess player playing a combination, with his moves, forces the opponent to retaliate, leading to inevitable defeat. As Viktor Krotov wrote, programming is the art of creating from hidden possibilities - explicit ones.

Sometimes, in order to force a person to take certain actions, you need to put him in front of a choice, making it in such a way that one of the solutions (which suits you) is also the most acceptable for the other person.

Popular by topic