The brand needs to be named, right. The name will accompany the product, service or company all the time. The brand needs to be named, right. The name will accompany the product, service or company constantly and whether we like it or not, everyone around will compare the brand with what it represents.
Conversely, the product or service itself will provide information about the brand level. Everything is interconnected.
The first impression often determines the attitude of a consumer towards a firm or a branded product.
Of all branding tasks, the most important is the name you give to your product or service.
Before answering the question of what a good name should be for a brand, you need to consider what names and titles people prefer to use. Each object and phenomenon has its own verbal designation, but sometimes people call them differently.
Brand accuracy and capacity
Often, consumers themselves replace the established name or brand name with a popular expression that “grows” to it so that the original name practically ceases to be used. Why did an automatic camera come to be called a "soap box"? For two reasons: firstly, it really looks like a soap dish in shape and, secondly, it is just as easy to handle. Many words "stuck" to the product, as they very aptly characterized the shape and design features: for example, a satellite dish is called a "dish", a table of a similar design is called a "book".
What do people call the Industrial Investment Bank? "Prominvestbank" or else - "PIB". Why not the full name? It's too long. For the same reason, the Savings Bank of Ukraine is popularly called Sberbank, they say not the Central Clinical Hospital, but the Central Clinical Hospital. Therefore, the operating system "Microsoft Windows" was simplified to "Windows", the computer was reduced to "computer", "Apple Macintosh" became a simple "Mac". The reduction of long and complex names to a simple and expressive word is characteristic not only for "our" consumers.
Expressiveness of the brand
An important feature of the Russian language is its expressiveness, that is, the ability to convey in speech not only the content of a concept, but also one's attitude towards it. So, replacing the word "TV" with "box" conveys a disdainful attitude towards the quality of the transmitted information and the level of programs. Or the neutral word "restaurant" is often replaced by the expressive word "pub", which expresses the atmosphere, quality of cuisine and level of service. The negative attitude towards the use of a ready-made phonogram at concerts is conveyed in the short and sarcastic word "plywood": something primitive, crude and unreal is expressed in it.
Photo: Foraggio Fotographic
There are words in the language that require an inner effort to pronounce, it is unpleasant to speak such expressions. As a rule, in the competition between words, among other things, those that are more pleasant to the ear win. For example, the word “airplane” is more consistent with the structure of the Russian language than “airplane.” The same metamorphosis occurs with the names of brands. A carton of milk from the Petmol plant began to be called "spotted" for the cow coloring.
Thus, if we do not want the people not to replace the name suggested by the manufacturers with their biting words, we need to make sure that the brand name is accurate, succinct, concise, lively, emotional and harmonious. A brand name must be suitable for use in a variety of brand communications and a variety of contexts of use. The brand name should also not be annoying or annoying with prolonged and intensive use. These are the general requirements for a brand name.
Substantive requirements for the brand name
The brand name is one of the most active communicators, so it is desirable that it contains key information for its consumers.
1. A correctly chosen name should be very precise and meaningful, indicate one (several) of the following categories or be associated with them: the idea of brand positioning;
the essence of the brand;
the main difference from competitive brands;
the main benefit or advantage for consumers;
result from use, received by the consumer;
purpose of goods, product category;
main aspects of quality or quality certification;
composition, design features of the goods;
trade offer to its consumers;
the main value of the brand from the point of view of consumers;
consumer style and standard of living;
motives prompting consumers to buy a given brand;
situations of product use;
situations of purchase of goods.
2. Another requirement for a brand name is the absence of negative associations with the listed categories. The brand name should not mislead consumers, reduce the perceived quality of the product, contradict the brand identity or blur the idea of the purpose, benefits and advantages of this brand
As a rule, a successful brand name contains indications of several categories at once or is associated with them.
Formal requirements for a brand name
A brand name is a word or phrase and must meet the requirements for oral and written use by meeting the following criteria.
1. Phonetic criteria: The name should be pronounced rhythmically and easily and correspond to the sound structure of the language in which the name is used.
The name should sound significantly different from the names of competitive products.
2. Phonosemantic criterion. If the name is a neologism, its sound should evoke positive associations corresponding to the brand identity
3. Morphological criterion. For compound, hybrid, abbreviated words and abbreviations, the meanings of each of the constituent parts and the whole word and associated associations must correspond to the brand identity
4. Lexical criterion. The meaning of a word from active vocabulary must correspond to the brand identity
5. Semantic criteria: Associations evoked by the word should be consistent with the brand identity.
The name should not evoke negative associations in all languages of its use in the context of brand identity.
6. Lexicographic criteria: The printed title should be easy to read.
It should be clear whether this name is written in Cyrillic or Latin.
Stressing the name should not be difficult.
7. The criterion of perception and memorization. The name should be easily perceived and well remembered
8. Legal criteria. Trademarks with this name should not be registered in the given class and country of possible use of the marks.
The name must not fall into the category of names that are not subject to registration as a word trademark.
Stages of creating a brand name
Creating a brand name is a lengthy and multi-step process and can be divided into nine main steps.
1. Marketing block: analysis of the manufactured goods (purpose, quality, benefit, benefit, etc.);
competitive analysis (consumer segments, price category, positioning, names, etc.);
segmentation of consumers (including the study of their expectations from the product group, perception of quality, life values, lifestyle, consumption patterns, etc.).
2. Brand positioning (including the concept of positioning).
3. Brand identity (including brand essence).
4. Approval of substantive and formal requirements for the name.
5. Creation of a series of names that meet the stated requirements.
6. Construction of semantic fields for names.
7. Expert testing of names.
8. Testing of names by consumer groups.
9. Legal expertise.
Methods for generating brand names
How should you create names for brands, where to find them? Let's look at the existing brand names. Most of the names can be divided by referring to their morphology. This classification is rather arbitrary: some names fall into two or three categories at the same time. For example, the name "BeeLine" refers to the categories "foreign word" (bee - translated from English - "bee" + line - "line"), "compound word" (formed by adding two words) and "metaphor" (" bi "- double, reliable +" line "- line, communication). The Lego name falls into the foreign word, abbreviation, and synecdoche categories
There are also such names that cannot be attributed to any category, it is even difficult to understand how it relates to the product, its features, the company or its founder. However, can such names be called successful? If desired, the table can be supplemented with the 28th category. "Free name".
Brand name categories
A word formed by adding two words
Alfa-Bank, Aeroflot, Beeline, Bystrosup, Soyuzkontrakt, Alldays, Aquafresh, Beefeater, Carefree, Citibank, Computerland, DeskJet, GoldStar, MasterCard, Newsweek, Oldsmobile, PowerBook, Rollerblade, Safeguard, Sunlight, Sunsilk, Thunderbird, Volkswagen
The end of one word goes to the beginning of another word
Biblion, Bystronom, Fruktime, Eveready, ReaLook
A compound word consisting of truncations of several words
Inkombank, KAMAZ, Campomos, Maksidom, Makfa, Metrocom, Petmol, Promek, Rosinkas, Svyazinvest, Soyuzstroytrest, Frugurt, Bio-Max, Calibaker, Duracell, Durex, Electrolux, Epson, FedEx, Finnair, Microsoft, Nescafe, Netscape, Nissan, O riflame, Quicktionary, WorldCom
Kimo, Medi, Stoma, Shock, Fanta, Intel, Mand rin, Optima, Oxy, T rico
A word consisting of the first letters of compound words
VAZ, GAZ, ZIL, MTS, NTV, RAO UES, ABB, AOL, AGFA, AT&T, BASF, BBC, BMW, DHL, DVD, Fiat, GAP, GE, GSM, IBM, JVC, Ikea, KBE, KLM, LG, Minolta, MTV, NEC, O. V., Ramec, Saab, TDK, UPS
A name that evokes associations with the benefit, the purpose of the product, the way of use, the place of origin of the goods
Excitement, Turquoise, Vorozheya, Power, House in the village, Magic, Delmi, Kind, Zarya, Source, Lileya, Picador, Rocolor, Rondo, Sonnet, Stinol, Fat man, Black pearl, Miracle, Elt, Barbie, Blend-a-med, Bounty, Calve, Comet, Cottonelle, Dove, Fruitella, Fruttis, MaxFactor, Mentos, Motorola, Old Spice, Orbit, Pantene, Pringles, Rolex, Snickers, Sony, Tide, Viola
A name that sounds associated with the properties of the product
Oleina, Lisma, Maslenkino, Gaoo, Jeep, Lexus, Supe ria, Tampax, Wella, Whiskas, Yahoo !, Zippo
A name that mimics the sound of a famous word
Absolut, Beaute, Biz, Brite, Chef, Euro-flite, Isi, Kleenex, Kool, L'eggs, Miller Lite, Nesquik, NRG, Pizza Hut, PlaySkool, Swatch, Twix, Polar Bear
A name consisting of rhythmic repetitions of consonants
Sweetheart Mila, Sam Samych, Toto, Chupa-Chups, Coca-Cola, Kiki, Kitekat, KitKat, Naf-Naf, Piggly-Wiggly, Sisi, Tic-Tac
7 / Eleven, Buy & Fly, Pickwick, Tutti-Frutti
Name borrowed from another language
Beeline, Geisha, Grand, Delta, Key, Land, Suite, Modus, Prima, Raviollo, Raptor, Tunes, Fiesta, Fumitox, Advance, AltaVista, Audi, BonAqua, GoodWin, Herbina, Invite, Lego, L'Oreal, Lucent, Nivea, Oggi, Omega, Reebok, Sobranie, Stoli, Taurus, Tsar, Ursa, Verbatim, Visa, Volvo, Xerox
Name based on the surname of the founder of the company
Dovgan, Kalashnikov, Korkunov, MIG, Smirnov, SU, Faberge, Adidas, Bacardi, Bic, Boeing, Bosch, Braun, Brooke Bond, Cadbury, Casio, Chane l No. 5, Colgate, Fazer, Gillette, Grundig, IKEA, Knorr, Lays, Levi's, Lipton, Maggi, Mars, Martini, McDonald's, Nestle, Parker, Philips, Schweppes, Siemens, Tinkoff, Unilever, W rigley, Yamaha
Female or male name
Alexandra and Sophia, Alenka, Antoshka, Arcadia, Afanasy, Dasha, Daria, Lada, Lisa, Linda, Maria Marusya, Mashenka, Mitya, Bear in the north, Alice, Mercedes, Sandra
Geographical name most commonly associated with the place of origin of a product
Bavaria, Baltic, Baltimore, Belarus, Bohemia, Borjomi, Vienna, Volga, Zhiguli, Zaporozhets, Klinskoe, Minsk, Moskvich, Narzan, Nevskoe, Obolon, Oka, Ochakovo, Peter, Pokrov, Progal, Slavutich, Tavria, Chernogolovka, Shatura, Alka-Selter, Fmlandia, Fuji, Gosser, Hitachi, Holstein, Malibu, Nokia, Rio Grande, Salem, Sanpelleg rino, Seltzer, Winston
The name of the animal or plant associated with the properties of the product
Stork, Squirrel, White eagle, Great tiger, Viburnum, Cobra, Hummingbird, Niva, New pearl, Power of summer, Falcon, Octopus, Bamboo stem, Three whales, Three bears, Black pearls, Alligator, Camel, Eagle, Falcon, Jaguar, Lion, Mongoose, Mountain Dew, Mustang, Panda, Puma, Red Bull, Scorpio, Tiger, Thunderbird
Historical name associated with a property or origin of a product
Afanasy, Belomorkanal, Bolshevik, Knight, Scythian Gold, Ivan Poddubny, Emperor, Imperial, Crown of the Russian Empire, Monarch, Peter I, Prince, Rasputin, Rot Front, Stepan Razin, Titanic, Tsar Father, Tsar Cannon, Tchaikovsky, Junkerskoe, Bond Street, Cadillac, Cardinal, Cesar, Goodyear, Lincoln, Marlboro, Napoleon, Oracle, Pontiac
Mythological, fabulous roots
Mythological or fairy-tale characters associated with product properties
Alyonushka, Ajax, Veles, Hercules, Dionysus, Gingerbread man, Little Red Riding Hood, Little fairy, Frosty, Parnassus, Parsley, Titan, Three heroes, Three bears, Troy, Cerberus, Acura, Ariel, Fairy, Mazda, Mercury, Nike, Odyssey, Olympus, Samsung, Saturn, Sprite
Title or expression from a famous work
33 cows, Aibolit, Wild Orchid, Uncle Styopa, Golden Key, Moidodyr, Oblomov, Buttermilk, The Snow Queen, Old Man Hottabych, Three Little Pigs, Three Fat Men, Bada Boom, Hakuna Matata
Name from one class transferred to a similar class
Bogatyr, Bochkarev, Fast, Gold, Golden bowl, Crystal, Favorite garden, Little fairy, Maslenkino, Morozko, Baker, Donut, Rainbow, Sweetly, Spassky gate, Flowers of Russia, Coldrex, Compaq, Dr. Mom, Durex, GoodWin, Minton, More, Mr. Doors, Roach Motel, Rollerblade, Secret, Sorti, Sprint, Whirlpool
Title from one class carried over to a related class
Conversation, Rustic, Milk, Niva, Kiev evening, Pole, Rastishka, Mittens, Smile (dentistry), Ice White, Head & Shoulders, Nord, Winter Fresh
A name that denotes a smaller part instead of a whole, and vice versa
Slice, Golden seed, Gloss, My family, Rosinka, Russian style, Russian standard, Northern city, Sladko, Solodov, Caterpillar, Dial, Mountain Dew, Twinhead
Connecting opposite words
The only choice, Heavenly hell
Name that exaggerates the property of the product
Hromada, Sea of Plumbing, Carlsberg, Computerland, Green Giant, Plato
Name that belittles a product's property
Butter, Window, Locker & Sofa
Title containing poetic description
White river, Pearl, Golden barrel, Dream of the hostess, Old Moscow, Eagle's eye, Milky Way
Descriptive product expression
Doors and windows, Eye microsurgery, Building materials, Household goods, Yaroslavl paints
Figures associated with quality or product group
100% Gold Premium; 1000 trifles; Lighthouse 24; 32 (toothpaste); 36, 6 (network of pharmacies); 48 kopecks; Pyaterochka; Ph 5, 5; 7 × 24
The table shows that the ways of forming names are diverse. Some categories are used frequently, such as abbreviations, acronyms, historical names, or metaphors. Others - such as hybrids, hyperboles, lithotes or oxymorons - are rarely used. For the structure of Russian speech, mimicry, developed in English, is not very characteristic, which is why it is so rarely used in the names of Russian brands.
Create a semantic field for the brand name
Semantic analysis is carried out only for words of active vocabulary or words with "readable" morphology. If the meaning of the word proposed for the name is known or it is possible to guess what parts it is composed of, we need different dictionaries to create a semantic field. First, all possible meanings of the word are written out according to the "Dictionary of the Russian language", say SI Ozhegov and N. Yu. Shvedova. Most of this dictionary was compiled in the 60s and 70s, so it is necessary to supplement the meanings given there from the modern dictionary, for example, from the “Large Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language”. Then we will need a dictionary of synonyms to supplement the meanings of the base word with a synonymous row, for this work the "Dictionary of Antonyms" can also be useful. Synonyms are chained as they move away from the base value, and a list of values is compiled for each of them. It is useful to use the frequency dictionary of the Russian language to distinguish common words from rarely used ones. It is often helpful to look into a nineteenth-century dictionary to document changes or obsolescence in meanings. For example - in the most famous such dictionary, compiled by V. I. Dal. It is very interesting to trace the origin of words that fall into synonymous series, for this you need to take an etymological or historical-etymological dictionary. But that's not all: invaluable help here will be provided by the Russian Semantic Dictionary, as well as the Russian Associative Dictionary, the first one “untwists” the meanings of a word by connection with adjacent meanings, the second by the free associations of native speakers.
After the semantic field has been created, the meanings and associations are analyzed for the accuracy of the transmission of positive content and the absence of negative meanings and associations. The significance of the positive content and the absence of negative content weakens with distance from the semantic core of the tested name. This work must be done in all languages of the possible use of the brand. Often, the compilation of the semantic field for the English version of the name allows you to discover new, unusual shades of meaning, as well as find a new etymology and non-standard synonymous series.
Business magazine BizKiev.com